This article deals with the results of the experimental seismic measurement using a standard seismic in situ station on a rock mass where the influence of the type of the trams passing on the frequency spectrum characteristics, the bandwidth and the maximum peaks was monitored. The goal of presented experimental measurement was to verify whether it is possible to find common patterns for individual types of tram cars in the frequency spectra using standard equipment for seismic measurements. The results show that in the spectrums certain characteristics can be traced, which are common to both a particular type of tram and a common group of tram types historically or structurally derived from each other.
Słowa kluczowe: seismic measurement, seismic station, frequency spectrum, tram cars.
W artykule przedstawiono badania sejsmiczne związane z przejazdem różnych typów tramwajów. Przedstawiono charakterystyki widmowe oraz monitorowano pasmo częstotliwości. Ekspeyment wykazał że każdy z pojazdów jak również każdy typ pojazdu ma typową dla siebie charakterystykę sejsmiczną.
Keywords: badania sejsmiczne, trawaje, charakterystyka widmowa
Standard seismic stations equipped with speed or acceleration sensors are commonly used to measure the natural, induced and technical seismicity [1, 2, 3, 4]. Such a station, for example, monitors the dynamic response of buildings or the dynamic response of rock masses due to various sources [5, 6, 7] and, on the basis of such measurements, the possible damage to buildings or the influence of vibrations on humans is assessed according to the technical standards or the attenuation parameters of the rock environment are determined [8, 9, 10]. The obtained results of such seismic measurements are in the form of wave images and frequency spectra wherein maximum values or maximum frequency values are monitored in the wave images at a certain time interval, and the predominant frequency of the dynamic load source is determined from the frequency spectra . The frequencies themselves then play a very significant role in the possible structural damage to buildings, especially if the resonance of the building's own frequency and the dynamic load source frequency occur. Long-term effects of vibrations to buildings may result in cracks in the plaster, masonry and, possibly, other faults, e.g. in vibration-sensitive equipment [12, 13, 14]. One of the most common sources of vibrations in the intravilan of large cities are the passing trams [15, 16, 17]. The intensity of these vibrations is mainly dependent on the type and age of the passing trams, but also on the structure and condition of the trackbed and the local geological structure [18, 19]. The range of maximum amplitudes of velocity, acceleration and frequency of the measured values for the rail transport in general are defined, for example, in International Standard ISO 4866:2010 : the maximum range of the vibration velocity amplitude: 0.2-50 mm.s-1 the maximum range of the acceleration amplitude: 0.02-1 m.s-2 the frequency range: 1-80Hz Th [...]
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