The substantiation of the necessity of increasing the completeness and reliability of processes modeling in electric power systems is given in this article. The synthesis of universal three-phase mathematical model of a power transformer (autotransformer), reproducing a significant spectrum of normal and abnormal processes in a transformer, taking into account the magnetization curve, is presented. The description of software and hardware simulation tools providing a methodically accurate solution of synthesized universal model in real time is described. The obtained simulation results confirm the adequacy of developed tools and the possibility of using in analysis and research of processes in electric power systems.
Słowa kluczowe: power system simulation, mathematical model of power three-phase transformers, hybrid simulation, HRTSim.
Przedstawiono model matematyczny t- autotransformator, procesy zachodzące w transformatorze z uwzględnieniem krzywej magnesowania. Zaproponowano opragramowanie I bazę sprzętową do syntezy w czasie rzeczywistym.
Keywords: system energetyczny, symulacja, transformator
According to statistics ,  about 50% of severe accidents in electric power systems (EPS), is caused by incorrect actions of the dispatching personnel and the emergency automatic systems, the main reason of which is the use in the design, research and operation of EPS insufficiently complete and reliable information about all possible processes, especially emergency ones, in EPS. The specific operation of EPS practically excludes the possibility of obtaining this information, and the extreme complexity of modern EPS significantly limits the applicability of their physical modeling. As a result, mathematical modeling is the main approach to obtain the information about all possible normal and emergency processes in EPS. The mentioned constantly high percent of the accident in EPS clearly indicates that the existing digital simulation tools do not provide the required completeness and reliability of mathematical simulation, and the efficiency, required for effective dispatch control of EPS. A detailed analysis of these factors is presented in . The level of mathematical description of processes in various elements of power equipment reached by now allows to solve the problems of the development of mathematical models for all types of equipment of EPS, for example , , describing the whole spectrum of processes without any decomposition. Power transformers and autotransformers as a part of EPS have significant impact on the processes in EPS as a whole, so mathematical models of power transformers and autotransformers should be sufficiently adequate and take into account the technologically and constructively variety. The listed types of transformers and autotransformers can be combined with a virtual adaptive five-winding transformer and take it as a prototype for the synthesis of a universal mathematical model for all these types. The foregoing determines the urgency of development of software and hardware simu [...]
 Atputharajah A., Saha T., Power system blackouts—literature review. Proceedings of Int. Conf. Industrial and Information Systems 2009, Peradeniya, 2009, pp. 460-465.  Veloza O. P., Santamariab F., Analysis of major blackouts from 2003 to 2015: classification of incidents and review of main causes. The Electricity Journal, Vol. 29, 2016, pp. 42-49.  Suvorov A., Andreev M., Ruban N., Ufa R., Methodology for validation of electric power system simulation tools. IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGTEurope), Torino, Italy, 2017, pp. 1-6.  Iżykowski J., Rosołowski E., Pierz P., Location of complex faults on overhead power line, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 92, 2016, nr 7, pp. 79-82.  Czaban A., Lis M., Chrzan M., Szafraniec A., Levoniuk V., Mathematical modelling of transient processes in power supply grid with distributed parameters, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 94, 2018, nr 1, pp. 17-20.  Kundur P. Power system stability and control - McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 1994.  Stevenson W. Elements of power system analysis control - McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, 1975.  Rivas J., Zamaro J.M., Martin E, Pereira C. Simple approximation for magnetization curves and hysteresis loops. IEEE Transaction on Magnetics, 1981, 17(4), pp. 1498-1502.  Babuska I, Prager M, Vitasek E. Numerical processes in differential equations. Praha: Interscience Publishers, 1967, pp. 1-70.  Hamming R. Numerical methods for scientists and engineers - Dover Publications, New York, 1962.  Hall G., Watt J. M. Modern numerical methods for ordinary differential equations - Oxford University Press, London, 1976.  Watson N, Arrillaga J. Power systems electromagnetic transients simulation - The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, 2007.  Andreev M., Borovikov Y., Gusev A., Sulaymanov A., Ruban N., Suvorov A., Ufa R., Bemš J., Králík T. Application of hybrid real-time power system simulator for research and setting a momentary and sustained fast turbine valving control, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 133-141.