An express analysis of the methods and systems of fault-tolerant control of induction motors of variable-frequency electric drives is presented. Classification features are suggested to evaluate the possibility of using existing fault-tolerant control methods in modern variablefrequency electric drives, taking into account the capabilities of control systems. As one of the promising directions, the usage of modern p-q and cross-vector instantaneous power theories and its modifications are allocated for solving inseparable connected tasks of damages diagnostics and compensation of their influence on the operation modes of the frequency-controlled electric drive.
Słowa kluczowe: variable-frequency electric drives, induction motors, fault-tolerant control, diagnostics
W artykule przedstawiono analizę metod i systemów sterowania. Zasugerowano właściwości klasyfikacyjne do oceny możliwości wykorzystania istniejących metod sterowania w nowoczesnych napędach elektrycznych o zmiennej częstotliwości, biorąc pod uwagę ich operatywność. Jeden z obiecujących kierunków, a mianowicie użycie nowoczesnych teorii mocy oraz ich modyfikacje s ą przydzielone do rozwiązywania nierozdzielnie związanych zadań diagnozowania uszkodzeń i kompensacji ich wpływu na stany działania zmiennoczęstotliwościowych napędów elektrycznych.
Keywords: zmienno-częstotliwościowy napęd elektryczny, silniki indukcyjne, sterowanie bezawaryjne, diagnostyka
Introduction Correct functioning of variable-frequency electric drives (VFD) with induction motors (IM) depends on the reliable operation of IM, a three-phase autonomous voltage invertor (AVI), and a control system (CS). IM malfunctions include failures of: - one or several phases of the stator; - electrical asymmetry; - magnetic asymmetry; - mechanical breaks, etc. AVI malfunctions include: - the failure of a separate semiconductor switch; - the failure of one or two invertor arms; - the malfunction or failure of the control driver, etc. CS malfunctions include: - the break of angular rotation frequency sensor; - the break of the current sensors; - the breaks at the formation of the control signals, etc. The share of IM malfunction is the biggest in the whole scope of VFD failures. When IM operates with insignificant defects or with the breaks at the early stages of their development the system maintains its operability. In this case the quality of control deteriorates; the indices of the energy efficiency of the process of the electromechanical energy conversion decreases, the losses increase essentially and variable components of the electromagnetic torque and consumed active power appear. In such cases fault-tolerant control systems (FTC) are of great interest. They usually consist of two parts: the system of diagnostics and fault revelation and the system of the formation of special control impacts for their compensation. The scope of FTC systems is determined by the elements for which it is important to maintain an operational state in case of damage, despite the reduction in power, speed and energy efficiency: - electric transport drive; - electric drive of critically important technological objects; - electric drive of fire pumps, pumping stations of public water supply and water disposal; - electric drive of ventilation systems. Problem statement With the given significant number of developed fault toler [...]
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