The article provides an overview analysis of the background literature with the description of the characteristics of Kazakhstan's crude oil and methods for reducing paraffin content in oil. The results of experimental studies on the effect of low-frequency sounds on crude oil samples are given to determine the dependence of the paraffin content on the input characteristics of the experiment.
Słowa kluczowe: crude oil, low frequency sound, kinematic viscosity
W artykule przedstawiono ogólną analizę literatury z opisem charakterystyki ropy naftowej w Kazachstanie oraz metod zmniejszania zawartości parafiny w oleju. Wyniki badań eksperymentalnych wpływu dźwięków o niskiej częstotliwości na próbki ropy naftowej są przedstawione w celu określenia zależności zawartości parafiny na wejściowych charakterystykach eksperymentu.
Keywords: ropa naftowa, dźwięk o niskiej częstotliwości, lepkość kinematyczna
Oil is a complex mixture of organic compounds based on hydrocarbons of different structure. Oils from different fields have different physical and chemical composition, contain many impurities, as well as dissolved gas, mineral salts and water. Oil is the main raw material for the production of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, fuel oil, lubricating oils and other products used by various industries. Oils from different fields often differ significantly in composition, since the components of oil are a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Oil contains molecules of different structure; and the number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in each molecule differs. In the process of extraction and transportation oil is exposed to various influences that can result in the concentrating of paraffins, asphaltenes and resins. This increases the density and viscosity of oil, changes its structure and characteristics; so oil gets into the category of hard-to -extract resources. Because of the active world oil production the reserves of light oils are depleted. The increasing demand for oil and products of its processing forces to look for new ways of production and processing of oil that is categorized as hardto- extract, highly viscous, and containing an increased percentage of paraffin in its composition. If oil contains more than 6% paraffin it is classified as paraffin base oil. 19,200 oil samples from various fields of the Earth were investigated in Russian Academy of Sciences. On the basis of the obtained results was compiled a database that stores information about the physical and chemical properties of oils. The study allowed to compile a scheme for the distribution of oil and gas basins whose oil contains a high percentage of paraffin. The analysis showed that the leader in the reserves of paraffin base oil is Russia, Kazakhstan occupies the second place, and China the third. Oil of newly discovered fields contains paraffin [...]
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