Przemysł hutniczy stanowi fundament chińskiej gospodarki. Jednak energochłonne zakłady tego sektora produkcyjnego wytwarzają m.in. The iron and steel industries are the backbone of Chinese economy. As an energy intensive manufacturing sector, however, it also produces a large amount of various hazardous air pollutants, including but are not limited to, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and heavy metals1). It is well known that SO2 and NOx are the primary causes of acid rain and photochemical smog2). The SO2 and NOx emissions from the iron and steel industries of China account for about 10% and 4% of the total industrial emissions, respectively3). They are mainly resulted from the tremendous production of pig iron and crude steel. Sintering is considered as the primary source of SO2 and NOx emissions4). Metal sulfide, sulfate, and organic sulfide of sintering mixture, 90% of which are oxidized to produce gaseous sulfur compounds in sintering process, are the main sources of SO2 emission of sintering flue gas. Fixed nitrogen in fuels and nitrogen gas in the air are converted into NOx in the sintering flue gas, and they are called fuel NOx and thermal NOx, respectively. Fuel NOx accounts for about 90% of the total NOx in the sintering flue gas. The SO2 and NOx emissions in sintering process exceeded 80% and 50% of the total air emissions from the iron and steel industry of China, respectively5). In 2012, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued the emission standards6). This standard sets the upper limit of SO2 and NOx emissions from sintering processes as 200 mg/m3 and 300 mg/m3, respectively6). Implementation of the standards poses a great challenge to the industries of concern. Mature technologies, such as wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) and SCR, which have been widely employed in the power industry, do not [...]
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