Wyniki 1-5 spośród 5 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"Dariusz PALMOWSKI"

Low-power device simulator for micro-energy measurement methods testing DOI:10.15199/48.2016.11.32

Czytaj za darmo! »

The paper presents low-power device simulator designed for testing of micro-energy measurement methods. Such kind methods can be used for evaluation of power systems based on Energy Harvesting. The device allows to set the current consumption characteristic over the time, thus making possible playing the role of different types of low-power devices e.g. simulating sensor network node. Streszczenie. W artykule omówiono symulator urządzenia mikromocowego przeznaczony do testowania metod pomiaru mikroenergii wykorzystywanych podczas oceny energetycznej systemów zasilania opartych na pozyskiwaniu energii ze środowiska. Urządzenie pozwala na kształtowanie przebiegu poboru prądu w czasie, co umożliwia odtwarzanie zachowania dowolnego urządzenia mikromocowego np. symulację węzła sieci sensorowej. (Symulator urządzenia mikromocowego do testowania metod pomiaru małych energii). Keywords: micro-energy measurement, energy harvesting, culombmeter, low-power devices. Słowa kluczowe: pomiar mikroenergii, pozyskiwanie energii ze środowiska, kulombometr, urządzenia mikromocowe. Introduction The paper concerns the topic of supplying low-power devices as well as energy harvesting methods. In the last years, powering electronic devices from alternative energy sources like solar energy [7], thermoenergy [1] or kinetic energy of mechanical vibrations is getting more and more popular. Such techniques usage allows to build electronic devices with working time which is not limited by the built-in conventional energy storage (battery) and without requiring the access to power line. This is very important, for example, in case of wireless sensor network nodes [6], as it assures complete autonomy of the nodes. To get the fully functional devices powered by the energy harvested from the environment, it is necessary to fulfill two main conditions: the power consumption limiting on the functional side of the devices while maximizing efficiency of harvesting, co[...]

Energy consumption estimation of low-power devices using an integrating coulombmeter DOI:10.15199/48.2016.12.54

Czytaj za darmo! »

The main problem in designing devices powered with Energy Harvesting is an estimation of energy demand of low-power devices as well as quantity of energy provided by the selected energy transducer in the assumed work conditions. Due to the work characteristic of each block of the device and properties of the measured signal, measurement is not trivial. The paper presents the proposal of the micro-charge measurement device based on an integrating coulombmeter. Streszczenie. Główną trudnością w konstrukcji urządzeń zasilanych energią ze środowiska jest oszacowanie zużycia energii przez urządzenie mikromocowe oraz ilości energii dostarczanej przez wybrany przetwornik w założonych warunkach pracy. Ze względu na charakter pracy poszczególnych bloków oraz właściwości mierzonych sygnałów, pomiar nie jest trywialny. Artykuł przedstawia propozycję układu pomiaru ładunku na bazie kulombometru całkującego. (Szacowanie poboru energii układów mikromocowych z wykorzystaniem kulombometru całkującego). Keywords: micro-energy measurement, energy harvesting, culombmeter, low-power devices. Słowa kluczowe: pomiar mikroenergii, pozyskiwanie energii ze środowiska, kulombometr, urządzenia mikromocowe. Introduction Energy Harvesting (EH) systems belong to a class of devices collecting the energy available in the environment and supplying it to the powered device. Collecting other forms of energy (such as solar energy, kinetic energy, the energy of mechanical vibrations or electromagnetic field) [1] enables the construction of devices that do not require conventional power sources. They can work in places difficult to access without additional service. This is possible under the condition of an efficient processing of energy from the forms available at the place of installation into electrical energy. Typical applications include sensor network nodes, elements of the installation smart home, recorders of transport conditions, systems for monitoring various [...]

On the use of a charge balancing method for low energy measurements DOI:10.15199/48.2017.10.18

Czytaj za darmo! »

Figure 1 presents the architecture of typical low-power device based on microcontroller [1]. Typical applications include sensor network nodes, elements of the installation smart home, recorders of transport conditions, systems for monitoring various parameters [2-5]. Fig.1. Block diagram of the low-power microcontroller-based device The device consists of the microcontroller (MCU) with extended energy saving modes, group of sensors allowing to measure required set of parameters and controlled by the MCU, low-power wireless communication module (usually operating at radio frequencies) and optional non-volatile data storage for keeping the acquires sensors data locally when the communication is not available or unjustifiable from the energetic point of view. Important part of the device is an energy source in form of a classical electrochemical battery or a modern Energy Harvesting (EH) module collecting the energy available in the environment and supplying it to the rest of the device. Collecting different energy forms (like solar energy, kinetic energy, the energy of mechanical vibrations or electromagnetic field) [6] enables the construction that do not require conventional power sources. This is possible under the condition of efficient energy processing and storing which is provided by the last block shown on Fig. 1. Efficient energy harvesting requires a converter converting other forms of energy into electrical energy. Depending on the energy form available, it may be a piezoelectric element (vibration), antenna (EM field), set of thermocouples (temperature difference) or photovoltaic cell (sunlight). In many cases, the system can have more than one type of energy converter to be more flexible. Usually the energy conversion and storage block includes specialized DC/DC converter adjusting the source voltage level to the required level by the micropower system. Energy storage can be obtained, in the simplest case, if a[...]

A Set of Low-power Microcontroller-based Modules Used for Testing of Small Energy Measurement Methods DOI:10.15199/48.2018.11.13

Czytaj za darmo! »

In recent years, we can observe continuously increasing demand for mobile devices and those working in places without access to conventional energy sources [1, 2]. Mostly, such kind devices use, as a power source, the builtin battery of cells or accumulators, so to extend the time of uninterrupted operation it is necessary to increase the capacity of the energy source and/or reduce the energy consumption of the device - by using low-power devices [3]. Another solution for power supply is to use alternative energy sources available in the environment - use of the "energy-harvesting" technique (EH) [4, 5]. Regardless of the chosen method for power supply, it is necessary to make an energy balance - a combination of the capacity of power supply on one side and the average and maximum energy consumption of the tested system or electronic device on the other side. The estimation of the actual parameters of both the energy source and the the energy consuming system is not an easy task. The difficulty is mainly due to the nature of energy consumption (current) by the micropower system: typically the system remains for most of the time (> 95%) in sleep mode, where the power consumption is at the level of several μA, waking up only periodically for a short time to perform measurements and recording or wireless transmission of their results. During activity, the current consumption increases significantly and reaches even tens of mA. For accurate estimation of energy consumed by a typical low-power system, the measuring device must be characterized by a large dynamic range - it should be assumed that the measured currents can vary by several orders of magnitude. Methods of energy estimation consumed by low-power systems First possible solution for small energy measurement is the one based on the energy definition: (1)    e b t t s sE u (t) i (t)dt where: tb - begin time, te - end time of energy me[...]

Programmable dynamically changing RC model for evaluation of Dynamic EIS methods and instrumentation DOI:10.15199/48.2018.11.14

Czytaj za darmo! »

Impedance spectroscopy [1] is a commonly used diagnostic and research tool in many areas of science and technique, it means in electrochemistry [2], materials engineering [3], anti-corrosion protection [4], biochemistry [5] and medicine [6] and many others. Impedance spectroscopy consists of two phases: first - measurement one - impedance characteristic (spectrum) of the tested object is acquired as a function of the frequency (Fig. 1a), second - analytical one - the state of the object can be determined either directly on the basis of the impedance spectrum or on the basis of the model parameters identified thanks to the measured impedance spectrum of the object under test. For classical impedance spectrum measurement technique it is necessary to assume stationary or quasistationary condition - it is required that the tested object state is not changing or at least is not changing during the experiment. The real-life objects, e.g. electrochemical cells, due to its nature, usually do not fulfill even quasi-stationarity condition. This leads to wide interest in methods allowing to monitor the impedance spectrum changes as a function of time [7-9]. The exemplary instantaneous impedance spectra are shown in Fig. 1b. The graph allows to visualize the impedance spectrum changes during the following stages of the tested object life. The graph axis marked with "serie" in Fig. 1b can be scalled using time units and the distances between respective spectra depends on the repetition time of the spectrum measurement. The impedance spectrum acquisition method has a meaningful influence on the minimal distance between respective spectra. If the impedance spectrum is measured using a classical impedance analyzer - step by step for each frequency in the spectrum - the measurement time will be extended significantly. Due to this fact, there is a need of methods allowing to shorten the measurement time [10], or even "one-shot" measuremen[...]

 Strona 1