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Refining the diagnostic quality of the abdominal fetal electrocardiogram using the techniques of artificial intelligence

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This article deals with utilization of the combination of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence techniques, called the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System ANFIS, with the aim to refine the diagnostic quality of the abdominal fetal electrocardiogram FECG. Within the scope of the experiments carried out and based on the ANFIS structure the authors created a complex system for removing the undesirable mother's MECG degrading the abdominal FECG. Current research shows that the application of the conventional systems for enhancing the diagnostic quality of the abdominal FECG faces a series of problems (e.g. non-linear character of the task to solve, computational complexity of RLS algorithms, etc.). The need for a higher diagnostic quality of the abdominal FECG is reflected in the authors’ intention to utilize the designed system for the latest intrapartum monitoring method, called ST analysis. In terms of this advanced method, the aspect subjected to a diagnostic analysis is the ST segment of the FECG curve. The results indicate that the system utilizing ANFIS shows better experimental results than the conventional systems based on the LMS or RLS adaptive algorithms. The proposed adaptive system aims to clear any doubts in evaluation of the results of ST analysis while using a non-invasive method of external monitoring. Streszczenie. W artykule przedstawiono wykorzystanie fuzji metod: zbiorów rozmytych i sztucznej inteligencji ANFIS do poprawy jakości diagnostyki elektrokardiografii płodu. Głównym problemem jest usunięcie sygnału pochodzącego od matki który znacznie przewyższa sygnał płodu. (Poprawa jakości sygnału elektrokardiogramu płodu przy wykorzystaniu narzędzi sztucznej inteligencji) Keywords: ANFIS, FECG, MECG, ST analysis. Słowa kluczowe: ANFIS, elektrokardiogram Introduction Modern medical diagnostic apparatuses [7], [8], [23], which are used for external (abdominal) monitoring of FECG [1], encounter a number of[...]

The implementation of channel coding into the digital transmission chain consisting of VSG PXI-5670 - VSA PXI-5661

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This article is focused on techniques for error detection and correction, which occur during a transmission in modern digital communication channels. The real implementation of these channel coding techniques into the digital communication system is presented in this article. The system is based on the PXI modular platform consisting of RF VSG PXI-5670 and RF VSA NI PXI-5661. The proposed communication system structure is based on a software-defined radio conception. Author’s goal was to describe and afterwards with real measuring, to revise properties of the measuring system based on this flexible approach. These systems seem to be very useful for testing of new generation transmission systems. Streszczenie. W artykule przedstawiono metody wykrywania i korekcji błędów przy transmisji danych. Zastosowano kodowanie kanałów wykorzystujące systemy RF VSG PXI-5670 i RF VSA NI PXI-5661. (Zastosowanie kodowania kanałów w cyfrowej transmisji bazujące na RF VSG PXI-5670 i RF VSA NI PXI-5661) Keywords: channel coding, error detection and correction, digital M-ary-QAM. Słowa kluczowe: kodowanie kanałów, transmisja danych, wykrywanie błędów Introduction With current communication systems we can see large increase of requirements for maximal allowable bit error rate (BER) [1]. BER value varies in range from 10-2 to 10-12 Concrete value depends on the transmitted signal type (f.e. telephone call signal BER = 10-4, HDTV BER = 10-10 for more details see [10]). However, these requirements cannot be met even with the use of most advanced modulationdemodulation methods [2]. In these cases, a situation can be improved by an appropriate protective signal coding carrying information in a transmitter channel encoder with convenient detection and if it is possible also with an automatic correction of incorrect received data in receiver channel decoder. In many of their publications, the authors of this article are writing about the adaptive equaliz[...]

BER Measurement in Software Defined Radio Systems

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The article describes a flexible concept of measuring system consisting of PXI-5670 RF vector signal generator and PXI 5661 RF vector signal analyzer. The measuring system structure is based on PXI modular system that applies synthetic instrumentation concept - software-based approach to measurement of wireless transmission systems basic parameters. Synthetic instrumentation is the future, particularly in sectors where the demand for fast evolution and increased flexibility of electronics systems has driven the trend for increasing software content of electronics systems. Authors of this article created with LabVIEW 2010 SP1 synthetic measuring instruments for measuring the real bit error rate BER, applicable in the field of advanced wireless transmission systems.[...]

Measurement of electric current using optical fibers: A Review DOI:10.15199/48.2017.11.30

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The fiber-optic sensor is based on the use of Faraday's magneto-optical effect (year of discovery is 1845), in which there is a magnetic rotation of plain of the polarized light, see Figure 1. However, the use of this phenomenon for the measurement of electrical quantities has only occurred thanks to the development of fiber optic technology. The rate of twisting of the polarization plane is directly proportional to the path d, after which the light in the given environment spreads and size of the components of the vector of magnetic induction B in the direction of light propagation. The orientation of the vector determines the meaning of the polarization plane. The size of the angle of rotation β, by which the polarization plane is rotated (see Fig. 1) can easily be calculated by a simple relationship (1): (1) 􀟚 􀵌 V ∗ B ∗ d, where: V - Verdet constant, B - density of magnetic induction, d - length of path The Verdet constant depends on the wavelength of the light and it is an optical "constant" that describes the strength of the Faraday-effect for a particular material. Fig.1. Basic scheme of the Faraday-effect. Fiber-optic current sensors are referred to as FOCS (Fiber-Optic Current Sensor). Figure 2 shows the principle of the fiber-optic current sensor FOCS. FOCS benefits are high accuracy, high bandwidth: detection of current ripple and transients, wide temperature range, full digital processing, uni- or bi-directional current measurement, analogue and digital outputs, easy to install, adaptable shape of sensing head, small size and weight, no magnetic centering necessary, no magnetic overload problem, immunity to electromagnetic interference and many others. Fig. 2. Principle of the fiber-optic current sensor FOCS An important application area of FOCS is the metallurgical industry, where an electrolytic process is used to obtain precious metals. Typical electrolyzers work with DC (D[...]

Tram Type Influence on the Frequency Spectrum Character of the Subsoil Dynamic Response DOI:10.15199/48.2018.11.22

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Standard seismic stations equipped with speed or acceleration sensors are commonly used to measure the natural, induced and technical seismicity [1, 2, 3, 4]. Such a station, for example, monitors the dynamic response of buildings or the dynamic response of rock masses due to various sources [5, 6, 7] and, on the basis of such measurements, the possible damage to buildings or the influence of vibrations on humans is assessed according to the technical standards or the attenuation parameters of the rock environment are determined [8, 9, 10]. The obtained results of such seismic measurements are in the form of wave images and frequency spectra wherein maximum values or maximum frequency values are monitored in the wave images at a certain time interval, and the predominant frequency of the dynamic load source is determined from the frequency spectra [11]. The frequencies themselves then play a very significant role in the possible structural damage to buildings, especially if the resonance of the building's own frequency and the dynamic load source frequency occur. Long-term effects of vibrations to buildings may result in cracks in the plaster, masonry and, possibly, other faults, e.g. in vibration-sensitive equipment [12, 13, 14]. One of the most common sources of vibrations in the intravilan of large cities are the passing trams [15, 16, 17]. The intensity of these vibrations is mainly dependent on the type and age of the passing trams, but also on the structure and condition of the trackbed and the local geological structure [18, 19]. The range of maximum amplitudes of velocity, acceleration and frequency of the measured values for the rail transport in general are defined, for example, in International Standard ISO 4866:2010 [20]:  the maximum range of the vibration velocity amplitude: 0.2-50 mm.s-1  the maximum range of the acceleration amplitude: 0.02-1 m.s-2  the frequency range: 1-80Hz Th[...]

Thermal analysis of PDMS light bulbs with a luminophore DOI:10.15199/48.2018.12.02

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1. Introduction Polydimethylsiloxane (hereinafter referred to as PDMS) has been primarily designed to encapsulate photovoltaic cells, printed circuit boards, transformers, current sources, thermally stressed cables, optical connectors, etc. [1-3]. Later, it also began to be used for other purposes because it conveniently combines mechanical, electrical and optical properties. In the 3D printing technology using the method of DPL (Digital Light Processing), it is used for the production of a printing base and is also widely used for fine lithography techniques, especially for the creation of microfluidic and microengineering systems - MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). For example, the authors of the publication [4] describe an optical biopsy microsystem technology that has smaller dimensions (11.2 x 18.6 mm) compared to other systems and reduced power consumption. The microsystem includes an image magnification optical microsystem (IMOM) and light emitting diodes (LED). Microlenses made from PDMS are integrated into the IMOM subsystem to achieve image magnification and to improve LED illumination. Other interesting solutions in the field of MEMS systems are described by authors of publications [5-10]. Publication [11] describes a new construction of a hybrid multichannel optical sensor system designed to monitor patient's vital functions. The noninvasive measuring probe is based on two FBGs encapsulated in the polymer; the authors selected the PDMS polymer because it is inert. There was no deformation of the FBG sensors in the vulcanization process; after the vulcanization, a fourfold increase in temperature sensitivity was observed compared to the nonencapsulated FBG. The probe and the associated multichannel system offer the ability to monitor the basic vital functions (body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate) in up to 128 patients. The same issue is addressed by the authors of publications [12-15]. Ot[...]

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