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Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Zigbee and Wi-Fi Protocols in 2.4 GHz Multi-standard Zero-IF Receiver

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This paper presents a system-level modeling of a multi-standard receiver, which satisfies Bluetooth, Zigbee and Wi-Fi protocols. An analysis of different wireless receivers suited for multi-standard purposes is performed. The multi-standard Zero-IF receiver was modelled and simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The simulation result exhibits better performance of multi-standard wireless receiver for these three protocols. The signal spectrum is verified by simulation model through the receiver for each standard and concluded that Zero-IF is the adequate topology for multi-standard receivers. Streszczenie. Przedstawiono odbiornik pracujący w wielu standardach - ZigBee, Bluetoot i WiFi. Modelowano taki odbiornik i symulowano. Stwierdzono że odbiornik typu zero IF ma najlepsza topologię dla pracy wielostandardowej. (Analiza właściwości odbiornika typu zero IF pracującego przy częstotliwości 2.4 GHz w różnych standardach) Keywords: Multi-standard, Zero-IF receiver, RF front-end. Słowa kluczowe: odbiornik, Zigbee, WiFi, Bluetoot. Introduction With the significant growth of wireless communication, challenges are continuously being posed on enabling technologies to handle requirements that are more demanding. Communication systems organize to simplify communication between one or more devices, according to a pre-determined signaling process. The signaling processes often conform to a standard, whether the standard is proprietary or determined by an industry consortium. For example, wireless communication systems involve communication between a base station and a mobile unit through radio frequency (RF) transmission. The baseband section in a receiver receives baseband analog signals and performs subsequent processing before generating digital output. Analog signals coming into the baseband receiver usually undergo a filtering operation to attenuate unwanted frequencies or noise, followed by an analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) [1].[...]

Design and analyses of a low power linear voltage regulator in 0.18um CMOS process DOI:10.12915/pe.2014.05.045

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Linear voltage regulator is inevitable in most electronic systems and demands low power and low area. A low dropout (LDO) linear voltage regulator is proposed in this paper by utilizing Current Feedback Amplifier (CFA) technology. The design achieves low power and low area by reducing the internal compensation capacitor and resistors. The simulated result shows that the design consumes only 567.1370pW which is 35% less than the reference circuit. The design also achieves low area and higher gain. Streszczenie. W artykule omówiono liniowy regulator napięcia wykorzystujący koncepcję LDO (low dropout ). Układ wykorzystuje wzmacniacz z prądowym sprzężeniem zwrotnym CFA I technologię CMOS. Zrealizowano układ pobierający o 35% mniej energii niż układy znane z literatury. Projekt i analiza regulatora napięcia o małym poborze mocy wykonanego w technologii CMOS 0.18 m Keywords: CMOS, low dropout, voltage regulator. Słowa kluczowe: regulator napięcia, low dropout, technologia CMOS doi:10.12915/pe.2014.05.45 Introduction System on Chip (SoC), modern communication systems including Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) etc are becoming increasingly popular day by day [1-4]. These systems demands low cost, high integrability and small size [5,6]. Power management is an essential device in these systems. Over-load protection, over-heat shield, stabilization, low power and low area are the essential features of the power management devices to assure the correct operation of these systems [7]. The rapid advancement of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology allows power management devices to achieve these criteria [8-10]. LDO linear voltage regulator is widely used in power management devices [11]. LDOs are one of the most critical modules as it is able to provide a nearly constant DC voltage for all the electronic systems. To regulate the performance (line and load regulation) t[...]

Evolution of Low Drop Out Voltage Regulator in CMOS Technologies DOI:10.15199/48.2015.12.06

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The demand for low voltage devices has initiated the development of Low Drop Out (LDO) regulator in manifold. This paper presents a review of various LDO frameworks that have been implemented in CMOS technologies and the impact of frameworks related to the parameters of the LDO. The LDO architecture is evaluated through its Power Supply Rejection (PSR) and transient response performance. The transient response performance mostly depends on the added buffer and the PSR performance depends on the pass device capacitance and the LDO loop gain. \ Streszczenie. W artykule przedstawiono przegląd rozwiązań układów LDO (Low Drop Pout) w technologii CMOS. Przedstawiono także rozwiązania typu PSR - Power Supply Rejection. Analizowano dynamikę tych układów. Tendencje rozwojowe układów LDO (Low Drop Out) w technologii CMOS Keywords: CMOS, Low Drop Out (LDO) Regulator, Power Supply Rejection (PSR), transient response. Słowa kluczowe: układy LDO - Low Drop Out, technologia CMOS. Introduction Power supply is one of the most vital modules in any electronic devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, camera, MP3 player, Personal Data Assistant (PDA), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) etc. [1-3]. Due to the rapid increasing demand for portable devices the use of efficient power management systems to prolong battery life cycle and operating time for device is becoming the most important factor [4-9]. A linear regulator is a popular power supply which is an inductor-less, ripple-less and low-noise power converter with a bulk line frequency transformer [10]. In the 1970s, the linear regulators have been implemented in BJT technology and are referred as the “20 kHz revolution" [7, 10]. However, the power efficiency was not sufficient for low-power operations as the ground current was load-current dependent and the dropout voltage was large [11]. In the 1980s, the power MOSFET appeared as the dominant power device due to its high-switching freq[...]

Low Voltage and Wide Bandwidth Class AB Variable Gain Amplifier in 0.18-(mikro) m CMOS Technology DOI:10.12915/pe.2014.06.034

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Variable gain amplifier (VGA) is the key element for amplifying process in analog to digital converter (ADC). In this paper, a low voltage and wide bandwidth class AB VGA is designed using CEDEC 0.18-μm CMOS process for high speed applications. The result show that, the designed VGA has a wide bandwidth of 100-MHz and consumes power less than 125uW at 1V supply voltage. From the results it is also evident that the circuit is capable of working with high linearity and wide bandwidth. The frequency response (Gain) and the wide bandwidth of this class AB VGA is better than previously reported class AB VGA. Smaller transistors are used to make the chip small and it occupies only 0.003 μm2. Such a VGA is suitable for high-performance RF devices. Streszczenie. W artykule opisano niskonapięciowy, szerokopasmowy wzmacniacz klasy AB typu VGA (variable gain amplifier - wzmacniacz o zmiennym wzmocnieniu). Wzmacniacz zaprojektowano wykorzystując proces 0.18 um CMOS. Wykonano wzmacniacz o pasmie 100 mHz i poborze mocy mniejszym niż 125 uW przy napięciu zasilania 1 V. (Niskonapięciowy, szerokopasmowy wzmacniacz klasy AB typu VGA w technologii 0.18 um CMOS) Keywords: CMOS, Class AB, High speed, Low Voltage, Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA). Słowa kluczowe: wzmacniacz klasy AB, wzmacniacz VGA - wzmacniacz o zmiennym wzmocnieniu. doi:10.12915/pe.2014.06.34 Introduction Variable gain amplifiers (VGA) are one of the most significant components in wireless communication receivers [1]. In typical communication receivers, VGAs are normally used in a feedback circuit to supply steady signal to baseband analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for random strength of received signal realizing the function of an automatic gain control (AGC). Gain range, power consumption and bandwidth of an ADC are strongly influenced by the performance of operational amplifier. In low voltage applications like wireless communication, mobile imaging applications etc. high-pe[...]

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