Wyniki 1-8 spośród 8 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"Waldemar WOJCIK"

High-temperature three-colour thermal imager DOI:10.15199/48.2015.02.47

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The influence of uncertainty of emissivity on the true temperature measurement errors is considered. Expressions for the optimal spectral range of thermal flux registration, that minimize an impact of uncertainty of emissivity, are obtained. Basic operation principles and parameters of high-temperature thermal imager based on 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA CMOS Digital Image Sensor MT9V034C12STC and notebook computer are described. In contrast to thermal imagers of Mikron 9103/9104 and PyroView series, thermal image registration is performed simultaneously in three overlapping regions of near-infrared spectrum. This allows to perform the emissivity evaluation and to reduce the error in determining the temperature that arises from the uncertainty of thermal emissivity coefficient. Streszczenie. W artykule omówiono wpływ niepewności wartości współczynnika promieniowania cieplnego - na błąd pomiaru rzeczywistej temperatury. Sformułowano wzory pozwalające na wybór zakresu widmowego optymalnego do rejestracji strumieni cieplnych, które minimalizują wpływ niepewności -. Opisano podstawowe zasady działania i parametry wysokotemperaturowej kamery termowizyjnej na bazie 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA CMOS Digital Image Sensor MT9V034C12STC i laptopa. W przeciwieństwie do wysokotemperaturowych kamer termowizyjnych serii Mikron 9103/9104 i PyroView rejestracja obrazu termicznego jest przeprowadzana jednocześnie w trzech nakładających się częściach widma bliskiej podczerwieni, co pozwala oszacować  i zmniejszyć błąd wyznaczenia temperatury wynikający z niepewności współczynnika promieniowania cieplnego (Wysokotemperaturowa trójkolorowa kamera termowizyjna). Key words: imaging pyrometers, non-contact high temperature measurements, three-colour thermal imager. Słowa kluczowe: pirometry obrazujące, bezdotykowe pomiary wysokotemperaturowe, trójkolorowa kamera termowizyjna. Introduction To ensure the quality of products made by the mechanical engineering enter[...]

Pyrometric gas analyzer of combustion products

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Measuring systems of gases concentration in combustion products on the basis of a pyrometric method of optical radiation processing is proposed. The contribution of own gas radiation to an error of measurement is analyzed. Streszczenie. W artykule zaproponowano system do pomiaru koncentracji gazów w produktach spalania wykorzystujący przetwarzanie sygnałów optycznych pochodzących z ich emisji cieplnej. (Pirometryczny analizator gazów do pomiarów produktów spalania) Keywords: measurement of the gas concentration, pyrometric method, own gas radiation. Słowa kluczowe: pomiary koncentracji gazów, metoda pirometryczna, emisja gazów. Introduction The energy-saving problem and an environment protection is closely connected to a problem of optimization of burning process. An optimum operating mode of the fuel burn equipment is such mode which at the given condition of the equipment allows to support the minimal emissions in an atmosphere CO and NO with greatest possible for the given mode coefficient of efficiency of system work. To achieve an optimum mode of fuel burning, it is necessary to know a number of parameters of the combustion products allowing the operator or an electronic regulator to provide such mode. The problem of the analysis of combustion products parameters is solved with the help of gas analyzers. The majority of the gas analysis methods are active because of the sources of probing radiation, one or several lasers, are frequently used for their realization. Thus to achievement, of high measurements accuracy it is necessary to provide high stability of parameters of lasers, such as wave length of radiation, capacity, width of a spectral line. At the limited sizes of the measured volume the passive gas analyzers which are not use the expensive lasers and stabilization systems of their parameters are more effective and convenient. However in such systems to achievement of high accuracy it is necessary to solve the pro[...]

The principles of reducing temperature measurement uncertainty of modern thermal imaging system DOI:10.15199/48.2016.08.32

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Abstract. The aim of the present study is to investigate the reasons of temperature measurement uncertainty when using modern thermal imaging systems. The basic requirements for high-temperature thermal imaging technique, that can improve the accuracy of determining the temperature of the heated body, are formulated. Streszczenie. Celem niniejszej pracy jest badanie przyczyn niepewności pomiaru temperatury przy użyciu nowoczesnych systemów termowizyjnych. Sformułowano podstawowe wymagania dotyczące techniki obrazowania termicznego w zakresie wysokich temperatur, spełnienie których poprawi dokładność pomiaru temperatury ogrzewanego ciała. (Zasady zmniejszenia niedokładności pomiaru we współczesnym systemie termowizyjnym) Keywords: non-contact high temperature measurements, three-colour thermal imager, uncertainty of the temperature measurement. Słowa kluczowe: bezdotykowe pomiary wysokotemperaturowe, trójkolorowa kamera termowizyjna, niepewność pomiaru temperatury. Introduction There is the problem of determining the temperature of the heated metals in industrial processes. The most convenient methods are the contactless methods for temperature measurement, which are based on the registration of the thermal radiation from the surface of the heated products [1-3]. The development of microelectronic technologies has made it possible to start serial production of the low-cost thermal imaging techniques [4-6]. Today, many consumers can use thermal imaging equipment for adjustment and control of the high-temperature manufacturing processes. Application of thermal imagers in difficult production conditions is much more effective than pyrometry techniques. Functional capabilities of modern thermal imaging techniques give a false impression of simplicity to her application. Actually often there are difficult conditions of temperature measurement when the thermal emissivity (, T), where T - temperature and  - wavele[...]

Modeling of the processes of low-dimensional structures formation on semiconductors surface by scanning laser radiation

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The analysis of results of experiment in the formation of periodic structures on GaAs surface by powerful laser radiation was conducted. The physic model of the process of structures formation was proposed. The numerical calculations of heating and melting processes of near-surface region was conducted. Streszczenie. W pracy przeprowadzono analizę wyników eksperymentu obejmującego tworzenie struktur periodycznych na powierzchni GaAs za pomocą silnej radiacji laserowej. Zaproponowano fizyczny model procesu formowania struktur. Przedstawiono obliczenia numeryczne procesów ogrzewania i topienia obszarów przypowierzchniowych. (Tworzenie struktur periodycznych na powierzchni GaAs za pomocą silnej radiacji laserowej) Keywords: low-dimensional structures formation, laser irradiation, GaAs. Słowa kluczowe: tworzenie struktur nisko-wymiarowych, naświetlanie laserowe, GaAs. Introduction It was found by experiment that formation of periodic structures on GaAs surface is possible under the influence of powerful laser radiation[1] High-resistance semi-insulating monocrystalline GaAs:Cr was used in the experiments. The second harmonic of a pulsed YAG:Nd laser (=0,532 μm, pulse duration 10-15ns, peak power P = 1MW) was chosen to be the sours of light. The scanning method was used for irradiation of samples with step equal to 2 μm. Diameter of the laser beam was 3 mm. The experiment was carried out under the 1 atm atmospheric pressure of 1 atm at T=20oC and humidity of 60%. The experiment resulted in formation of micronills with base diameter of about 500 nm and top diameter of about 6nm (fig. 1). Fig. 1. AFM 3D image of GaAs surface after irradiation by YAG:Nd laser at I=5.5 MW/cm2 Semiconductor is being unevenly heated up when absorbing radiation. As soon as irradiation conditions are sufficient for evaporation, cooling of the semiconductor surface takes place and as consequence formation of the solid phase occurs [2]. S[...]

Physical elementaries of laser radiation sources overall dimensions miniaturization

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Considered facilities of miniaturization various types of lasers taking into account their construction features and active media physical properties. Streszczenie. W pracy rozważono własności miniaturyzacji różnych typów laserów, ze względu na ich cechy konstrukcji oraz własności fizyczne aktywnego medium (Fizyczne podstawy źródeł radiacji laserowej w kontekście miniaturyzacji ich wymiarów). Keywords: miniature solid-state lasers, semiconductor laser, laser diode, strip geometry, «zig-zag» laser, liquid laser. Słowa kluczowe: miniaturowe lasery jednorodne, laser półprzewodnikowy, diode laserowa, geometria paskowa, laser typu «zig-zag», laser ciekły Introduction The development of compact laser radiation sources with low power consumption always seems to be actual problem. Only by using miniature lasers it is possible to create portable equipment with variable functional purposes: laser rangers, environmental monitoring systems, medical devices for disease diagnosis and medical treatment and etc. However technical solution of this problem is impossible without taking into account definite physical principles of laser radiation sources active substance. Amplitude lasing condition for laser with Fabry-Perot resonator can be written in next form [1]: (1) 1 2 1 ln 1 2 k L rr    , where k - amplification gain per active laser substa[...]

Creating an algorithm of encryption based on prime numbers in positional systems of calculating residual classes DOI:10.15199/48.2018.02.38

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Known encryption algorithms and methods are built in positional number systems. Non-traditional algorithms created on the basis of positional number systems and cryptographic methods make it possible to increase the crypto-stability and efficiency of encryption algorithms. Creation of cryptographic algorithms models of information protection is considered on the basis of positional number systems using the features of the algebraic method. A feature is the implementation of positioning systems based on residual classes. At the same time, information protection is carried out by effective software as a module of combining cryptographic system. This cryptographic information security, as well as processing information in a local and distributed information environment designed to prevent unauthorized access to objects in the environment can be used as an internal information security system. Among the tasks of the information protection system are identification, authentication and authorization (or access isolation) of users when providing secure access to local or remote data. The information protection system includes the developed multicriterial system of access isolation (MSAI). MSAI will be adapted for this information security system. The adapted MSAI is also a subsystem along with CIPF. It provides the user with a secure access area in the form of information resources group available to it in accordance with its authority. The main objective of MSAI, as a subsystem of the information protection system, is to provide multicriterial access to multilevel or classified data. A software implementation of the information system will be implemented. In our country (mainly) foreign software, hardware applications of information protection are used. These applications are naturally transparent to their developers. In this regard, the Security Council of the Republic of Kazakhstan has accepted the Concept of Information Sec[...]

The Influence of Infrasonic Impacts on the Crude Oil Viscosity Reduction DOI:10.15199/48.2019.05.24

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Oil is a complex mixture of organic compounds based on hydrocarbons of different structure. Oils from different fields have different physical and chemical composition, contain many impurities, as well as dissolved gas, mineral salts and water. Oil is the main raw material for the production of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, fuel oil, lubricating oils and other products used by various industries. Oils from different fields often differ significantly in composition, since the components of oil are a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Oil contains molecules of different structure; and the number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in each molecule differs. In the process of extraction and transportation oil is exposed to various influences that can result in the concentrating of paraffins, asphaltenes and resins. This increases the density and viscosity of oil, changes its structure and characteristics; so oil gets into the category of hard-to -extract resources. Because of the active world oil production the reserves of light oils are depleted. The increasing demand for oil and products of its processing forces to look for new ways of production and processing of oil that is categorized as hardto- extract, highly viscous, and containing an increased percentage of paraffin in its composition. If oil contains more than 6% paraffin it is classified as paraffin base oil. 19,200 oil samples from various fields of the Earth were investigated in Russian Academy of Sciences. On the basis of the obtained results was compiled a database that stores information about the physical and chemical properties of oils. The study allowed to compile a scheme for the distribution of oil and gas basins whose oil contains a high percentage of paraffin. The analysis showed that the leader in the reserves of paraffin base oil is Russia, Kazakhstan occupies the second place, and China the third. Oil of newly discovered fields contains paraffin [...]

Analysis of the vascular tone and character of the local blood flow to assess the viability of the body using the photoplethysmographic device DOI:10.15199/48.2017.05.18

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The paper evaluated the vascular tone and character of the local blood flow using photoplethysmographic device to determine the viability of the studied organ and prospects for its preservation. Streszczenie. W pracy przedstawiono ocenę sygnału naczyniowego i charakter lokalnego przepływu krwi z użyciem urządzeń fotopletyzmograficznych do oceny żywotności badanego narządu i perspektywy jego zachowania (Analiza napięcia naczyniowego i charakteru lokalnego przepływu krwi z użyciem urządzeń fotopletyzmograficznych do oceny żywotności narządu). Keywords: occlusive disease of lower extremity arteries, collateral circulation, a survey, photoplethysmography. Słowa kluczowe: zarostowa choroba tętnic kończyn dolnych, krążenie oboczne, badanie, fotopletyzmografia. Introduction Today a significant number of leading companies engaged in development and production of diagnostic medical equipment [1]. The most famous ones are: Philips, MEDIC (Medizinische Messtechnik GmbH), Nonin, Cas Medical System, Radiometer, Micromed, Criticare, UTAS (Ukraine) and others. For biomedical devices is not the most important characteristics are painless, noninvasive measurements in the diagnosis. Among the methods that can provide it, occupy a prominent place optical. Optical methods inherent advantages such as noninvasive of diagnostics, optical signal indifference to electromagnetic interference, multi potential. Photoplethysmography technique compared with other diagnostic methods for biological object, such as the photoacoustic method to increase the reliability of registration hemodynamic circulation, and the introduction of fiber elements technology and sources of different wavelengths of radiation allows the probe accurately solve problems photodynamic studies of hemodynamic parameters or other biological object. In this respect, promising work to create optoelectronic systems for diagnosis, therapy and prediction of the cardiovascular system as an ef[...]

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