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Modification of selected properties of polypropylene membrane using plasma treatment and electron irradiation

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Atmospheric pressure plasma barrier discharge and swift electron beam radiation have been used for changing properties of polypropylene microporous Celgard® 2500 membrane in order to use its as a separator in high energy electrical batteries. Above plasma discharge has been realized by a low frequency (0.25 kHz) generator at 12 kV pulses in presence of different gases. After plasma trea[...]

Surface layer of austenitic stainless steel formed by alloying with REE using high intense pulsed plasma beams (HIPPB)

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Austenitic stainless steels are used in different industrial applications, due to their very good corrosion resistance - for example: nuclear and petrochemical industries, pulp and paper chemical, food and chemical processing and biomedical industries. But simultaneously austenitic stainless steels have poor tribological properties. Improvement of the wear resistance of austenitic stainless steels without loss of corrosion resistance is very important direction in materials engineering. Oxidation of austenitic stainless steel is the point of interest of many authors [1÷3]. Corrosion of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessels has become one of the major problems in industrial application. Common reactor materials, like stainless steels, can be used in the SCWO systems [3, 4]. Improvements of useful properties of austenitic stainless steel can be achieved using different surface treatment, for example: resolidification techniques or enrichment of the surface layer with reactive elements. High oxygen affinity elements such as Y, Ce, La, Er and other rare earth elements (REE) added to steels in small amounts can improve their resistance for electrochemical corrosion [5], oxidation-including high temperature oxidation [1, 5] and wear [6]. REE can be alloyed during the steel making process or can be added to the surface region of materials using different surface modification techniques. Examples of such modification processes are as follow: ion implantation [5, 7], sol-gel coating [7], pulsed plasma beams [8, 9]. Pulsed energy can be delivered to the surface of a given material by laser, electron, ion and plasma beams [2, 9, 10, 11]. When high intensity, short duration ion or plasma pulses hit a material, they can modify the structure of its near-surface region. The main difference between laser & electron and ion & plasma beams relies upon the fact that these last two media can deliver to material energy and also the foreign i[...]

Modification of structure and properties of unalloyed steels with intense argon and nitrogen plasma pulses

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It is known, that phase - of the Fe-intestitial element phase equilibrium diagram - transformations into austenite can take place in the surface layer of steels irradiated with intense pulses of laser, ion or plasma beams. Due to the presence of nitrogen and carbon expanded austenite in stainless steel, good corrosion resistance is maintained while the wear resistance is increased. Unalloyed [...]

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