Wyniki 1-8 spośród 8 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"Kamil FILIK"

Badanie odporności zespołów awioniki statków powietrznych na narażenia LEMP DOI:10.12915/pe.2014.10.15

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Przedstawiono efekty wyładowań atmosferycznych oddziałujących na statki powietrzne oraz procedurę badań odporności zespołów awioniki na efekty pośrednie obserwowane w ich obwodach. Scharakteryzowano metody weryfikacji podatności urządzeń elektrycznych i elektronicznych na zaburzenia przejściowe powstające w instalacji statku powietrznego. Zaprezentowano przykładowe badanie podatności pracującego zasilacza impulsowego na zaburzenia indukowane w jego obwodzie zasilania. Wykorzystano stanowisko z generatorem pojedynczych udarów napięciowych dostępne w Laboratorium przepięciowych badań awioniki w Politechnice Rzeszowskiej, dedykowane do badań zgodnych z normą DO-160. Abstract. Lightning effects observed on aircraft wiring and procedure of lightning immunity tests of avionics were presented. Verification methods of susceptibility to induced transients have been characterized. Exemplary immunity test of powered SMPS power supply with the use of cable bundle method was performed. The test stand with single stroke generator available in the Laboratory of lightning immunity tests of avionics at Rzeszow University of Technology was used. It is dedicated to conduct tests according to DO-160 standard. In the future it is planned to carry out a series of test to obtain input surge impedances. (LEMP immunity test of aircraft avionics). Słowa kluczowe: LEMP, awionika, odporność na zaburzenia, próby pojedynczymi udarami napięciowymi i prądowymi. Keywords: LEMP, avionics, immunity to disturbances, tests with single voltage and current surges. doi:10.12915/pe.2014.10.15 Wstęp Zapewnienie kompatybilności elektromagnetycznej oraz właściwej ochrony przeciwprzepięciowej jest ważną częścią procesu projektowania i certyfikacji statków powietrznych (SP). Badanie odporności awioniki na zaburzenia elektromagnetyczne jako następstwa wyładowania atmosferycznego jest procesem złożonym. W wyniku wieloletnich badań opracowane zostały znormalizowane przebiegi napięci[...]

Analiza przepięć indukowanych pochodzenia atmosferycznego w systemie nawigacyjno-komunikacyjnym statku powietrznego DOI:10.15199/48.2016.08.68

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W artykule przedstawiono wstępne rezultaty badań przepięć pochodzenia atmosferycznego, rejestrowanych w zasilonym systemie nawigacyjno-komunikacyjnym statku powietrznego, które prowadzono w Politechnice Rzeszowskiej, w laboratorium przeciwprzepięciowych badań awioniki. Badania wykonano metodą indukcyjnego sprzęgania pojedynczych udarów napięciowych o znormalizowanym kształcie WF4 6,4/69 μs do jednej z wiązek kablowych badanego zestawu. Pomiarów dokonano przy różnych wariantach uziemienia ekranów przewodów. Rejestrowano przebiegi prądowe i napięciowe indukowane w liniach zasilania oraz sygnałowych - obwodzie komunikacji audio. Wykazano wpływ obecności ekranu oraz sposobu jego podłączenia do uziemienia na wartość szczytową i kształt przebiegów napięciowych i prądowych w badanych obwodach. Abstract. In this paper, the preliminary results of studies was presented of induced lightning transients in powered NAV/COMM system of the aircraft, conducted at Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in laboratory of lightning tests of avionics. The test was perform by coupling standardized voltage waveform WF4 6,4/69 μs into one selected cable bundle, connected to equipment under test. Measurements using different methods of grounding of cable shields were done. Voltage and current transients, induced in power supply and audio communication lines, were recorded. The influence of cable shield presence and shield grounding method to peak value and shape of transients, induced in observed circuits, was shown. (Analysis of lightning transients induced in NAV/COMM system of aircraft) Słowa kluczowe: wyładowania atmosferyczne, przepięcia atmosferyczne, ochrona odgromowa statków powietrznych, ochrona przepięciowa awioniki. Keywords: lightning discharges, lightning overvoltages, lightning protection of aircraft, lightning overvoltages protection of avionics. Wstęp Bezpośrednie wyładowanie atmosferyczne w statek powietrzny skutkuje przepływem prądu p[...]

Analysis of lightning current distribution in lightning protection system and connected installation

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The aim of this paper was to analyze lightning current distribution in a typical lightning protection system (LPS) and connected supplying electrical installation. Some preliminary tests done in 2012 for the real scale test house model equipped with the LPS and connected to the 15kV/400V supplying transformer station showed that the most of the current flew through the transformer grounding. Moreover, shapes of the current wave-forms in the LPS grounding rods were different from the surge, and strongly dependent of the transformer grounding characteristics. In order to make precise analysis a simple model of the LPS was prepared at the open test site. The model was a frame consisted of rectangular air terminals and two grounding rods. Transformer circuit was connected to the one side of the frame near the ground surface. The lightning stroke current was injected to the frame with application of 10/15 μs stroke generator of energy about 10 kJ. Measurement was done for several different configurations of the LPS, and for current amplitudes varied from 100 A up to 3 kA. The results indicated variation regarding both, the amplitude and the shape of the waveforms. The most significant changes were due to trans-former grounding influence. The rising time of the waveforms changed highly when the transformer was connected to the LPS. In correspondence to the current measurement total resistance was verified. The resistance was measured for several groundings individually and totally in respect to the generator surge location. Typical results were observed in this case. Further simulation was based on the evaluation of the generator current by the measured resistances in order to obtain theoretical currents in different points of the LPS. Direct comparison of measured and computed waveforms showed distinct character of the real circuit. Therefore, in order to improve current simulation accuracy the grounding system impedance should be considered r[...]

Badania funkcjonalne generatora udarów do prób odporności awioniki

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Przeprowadzono badania funkcjonowania generatora przeznaczonego do prób odporności awioniki pojedynczymi udarami napięciowymi i prądowymi odwzorowującymi zagrożenie zaburzeniami powstającymi w czasie wyładowań piorunowych. Obiektem poddanym próbom był wybrany zasilacz komputerowy. Wyniki badań potwierdziły właściwości i parametry generatora gwarantowane przez jego wytwórcę, a także zgodność tych parametrów z wymaganiami normy DO-160. Pozwoliły również na ocenę odporności badanego zasilacza na udary napięciowe i prądowe oraz umożliwiły identyfikację charakteru impedancji jego obwodu wejściowego. Abstract. Functional investigations were conducted of generator dedicated for immunity tests of avionics with voltage and current single strokes representing the threat coming from disturbances caused by lightning discharges. Selected computer supplier was the tested object. Investigation results confirmed the characteristics and parameters of the generator guaranteed by the manufacturer, and also the conformity of these parameters with the DO-160 standard requirements. The results also allowed to evaluate the immunity of tested supplier to voltage and current surges, and they enabled to identify the character of its input circuit impedance. (Functional investigations of surge generator for immunity tests of avionics). Słowa kluczowe: awionika, odporność na zaburzenia, próby udarami napięciowymi i prądowymi. Keywords: avionics, immunity to disturbances, tests with voltage and current surges. Wstęp Wśród wielu typów wyładowań atmosferycznych można wyróżnić wyładowania doziemne oraz wyładowania w chmurach. W pierwszym przypadku wyładowania są inicjowane liderami odgórnymi (tereny równinne) lub oddolnymi (tereny górzyste, wysokie obiekty). Wyładowania w chmurach wiążą się z przepływem ładunku w obrębie jednej chmury lub między chmurami [1]. Efekty w postaci zaburzeń pola elektromagnetycznego dla tych dwóch rodzajów wyładowań są różne. Decyduje o t[...]

Analysis of lightning current distribution in lightning protection system and connected installation DOI:10.12915/pe.2014.02.45

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The aim of this paper was to analyze lightning current distribution in a typical lightning protection system (LPS) and connected supplying electrical installation. Some preliminary tests done in 2012 for the real scale test house model equipped with the LPS and connected to the 15kV/400V supplying transformer station showed that the most of the current flew through the transformer grounding. Moreover, shapes of the current wave-forms in the LPS grounding rods were different from the surge, and strongly dependent of the transformer grounding characteristics. In order to make precise analysis a simple model of the LPS was prepared at the open test site. The model was a frame consisted of rectangular air terminals and two grounding rods. Transformer circuit was connected to the one side of the frame near the ground surface. The lightning stroke current was injected to the frame with application of 10/15 μs stroke generator of energy about 10 kJ. Measurement was done for several different configurations of the LPS, and for current amplitudes varied from 100 A up to 3 kA. The results indicated variation regarding both, the amplitude and the shape of the waveforms. The most significant changes were due to trans-former grounding influence. The rising time of the waveforms changed highly when the transformer was connected to the LPS. In correspondence to the current measurement total resistance was verified. The resistance was measured for several groundings individually and totally in respect to the generator surge location. Typical results were observed in this case. Further simulation was based on the evaluation of the generator current by the measured resistances in order to obtain theoretical currents in different points of the LPS. Direct comparison of measured and computed waveforms showed distinct character of the real circuit. Therefore, in order to improve current simulation accuracy the grounding system impedance should be considered r[...]

Estimation of Building Form Factor and Calibration of ELF-MF Electric Field Antenna Dedicated to Lightning Measurements DOI:10.15199/48.2017.12.07

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Calibration is an important task during the operation of different commercial and research lightning location systems [1,2]. The accuracy of the calibration has an influence on lightning flash parameters estimation regarding the distance and channel base current [3,4]. In case of systems operating for scientific purposes the calibration enables research centers to compare results each other. Moreover, it gives more analysis possibilities. Most models of lightning phenomena are based on idealized case where the lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) propagates from the channel through the flat terrain. Therefore, registrations done with application of antennae located at urbanized terrain cannot be directly utilized in those formulas. A problem of the calibration of antennae dedicated to lightning measurements is not very common in literature [5]. There are many different methods applied by lightning registration stations [6]. Some of them are based on setups composed of two parallel plates. In this case antenna is located between the plates in well-known electric filed (EF) generated by application of the voltage [7]. Unfortunately, this procedure is not accurate, and does not take into account the presence of the building. Antennas are often situated at the roofs of elevated buildings where the electric field distribution is different than in case of flat terrain. The influence of the structure which tells how much the field is amplified/attenuated is described by the form factor [8]. This factor is mainly dependent on the structure height and the location of the antenna at the roof. It might be significantly different when the antenna is placed near the edge or in the center of the roof. Therefore, the building form factor should be estimated for the normal operating position of the antenna. Another type of calibration methods use computer simulation of electric field distribution [9]. The configuration of antenna and i[...]

Lightning current distribution in a laboratory model of lightning protection system DOI:10.15199/48.2016.10.10

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The paper presents the results of preliminary laboratory tests of impulse current distribution in a model of the lightning protection system (LPS). The wooden frame house was prepared in a scale 1:5. It was based on the full size object subjected to lightning currents during open air experiments at the test side in Huta Poręby near Rzeszów. It was equipped with the model of the lightning protection system connected to the supplying electrical installation. The surge current injected to the tested system in the laboratory was produced with use of the lightning transient generator. Measurements were done for three varied shapes of the injected impulse current. The obtained results indicated the frequency dependent behaviour of the tested system. The current distribution in the proposed laboratory model of LPS is similar to those achieved during the tests on the real scale objects in recent years. Streszczenie. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań laboratoryjnych rozpływu prądów piorunowych w modelu urządzenia piorunochronnego. W skali 1:5 przygotowano drewniany szkielet budynku mieszkalnego, odwzorowujący obiekt używany do poligonowych badań rozpływu prądów udarowych w jego instalacjach piorunochronnej oraz elektrycznej, prowadzonych w Hucie Poręby niedaleko Rzeszowa. Zaproponowany model odzwierciedla istniejącą na poligonie instalację odgromową wraz z przyłączoną do niej niezasiloną typową elektryczną instalacją w postaci wewnętrznej sieci elektrycznej nn wraz z osprzętem, dochodzącej do złącza kablowego ziemnej linii kablowej nn, stacji transformatorowej i linii napowietrznej SN. Pomiarów dokonano dla trzech różnych kształtów wstrzykiwanego prądu udarowego. Uzyskane rozpływy prądów impulsowych są zbliżone do tych, obserwowanych podczas poligonowych badań pełnowymiarowych systemów przez ostatnie lata. Badany model wykazuje zależny od częstotliwości charakter. (Rozpływ prądów udarowych w modelu laboratoryjnym urządzenia piorunochronnego). Key[...]

Applications of impulse current and voltage generators dedicated to lightning tests of avionics DOI:10.15199/48.2018.02.03

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Generators of voltage and current transients are used for many years in experimental research related to the phenomenon of lightning [1,2]. They can be used to reproduce direct and indirect effects of lightning, which are observed in terrestrial objects and those above the surface of the earth. One of such studies is based on simulating an indirect impact of lightning discharge using a dedicated set of generators. This type of apparatus is used in the Laboratory of Lightning Test of Avionics at the Rzeszow University of Technology (RUT). It turns out that thanks to its construction and properties it is also suitable for other applications in the lightning research. In addition to analyzing overvoltages in the onboard systems of aircraft [3], other examples of application of modular impulse generators will be provided below. Modular impulse generators The MIG0618SS and MIG0600MS modular impulse generators are designed to carry out tests of avionics susceptibility to lightning induced transients [4,5]. Discharge modules are the basic units of these generators (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2b). They can be configured in series or parallel to offer an optimum solution. One module includes high voltage capacitor, power-electronic switches, the trigger and polarity reversal circuits and a part of the impulse shaping circuit. Depending on the selected shape, level and number of generated strokes the number of modules and impulse forming networks changes as shown for example in Fig. 1. Single stroke idealized waveforms from MIG0618SS are used for damage assessment tests on equipment, whereas multiple strokes from MIG0600MS are applied for EMC tests on avionics. Fig. 2a shows a view of these generators situated on the test stand. Three different shapes of current or voltage: 6.4/70 μs, 40/120 μs and 50/500 μs can be coupled in three ways to the tested system by direct injection to selected pins, by injection between equipment[...]

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