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Network Stack of the HopeMesh Experimental Wireless Mesh Network DOI:10.15199/48.2018.06.28

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According to Akyildiz [1], “a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) consists of mesh routers and clients where mesh routers have minimal mobility and form a mesh of selfconfiguring, self-healing links among themselves". The article presents a network stack that has been designed and implemented for an experimental wireless mesh network. Most of existing WMNs applications depend on standard network devices that are part of the personal computer environment with their operating system. WMNs that are implemented as general-purpose embedded systems are rare. HopeMesh Experimental Wireless Mesh Network is composed of simple nodes based on a AVR ATmega162 microcontroller with an external 62256 SRAM memory chip that offers additional 32 KiB and a HopeRF RFM12B radio module. The available memory can keep routing data for a maximum number of 2838 nodes, as one entry in the network routing table requires 11 bytes in total. 2. An Overview of Existing Network Stack Solutions for Embedded Systems Currently, there are many available network stacks that can be used as a part of a AVR-based mesh network.  Tuxgraphics TCP/IP stack, 3rd generation [2] was designed for distributed sensors with a web server. Its serious disadvantage is the limitation to one IP packet only. Moreover, only the enc28j60 Ethernet module is supported and wireless networking is impossible.  An open source BACnet protocol stack for embedded systems [3, 4] consists of an application layer, a network layer, and media access control (MAC) layer communications services for an embedded system or an operating system. There is an existing port for ATmega168 available.  Atmel Lightweight Mesh [5, 6] software stack is an easy to use, proprietary, low power wireless mesh network protocol. It has been designed to address the needs of a wide range of wireless connectivity applications, including remote control, alarms and security, automatic meter readin[...]

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