Wyniki 1-1 spośród 1 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"Michal G. Zubel"

Experimental Validation of New Classes of Dyes for Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells

  Solar power is numbered, along with wind, water (waves, tides, dams, run-on-the-river systems), biomass growth (traditional and advanced) and geothermal heat among renewable energy sources. Although the accuracy of any long-term forecast can be considered questionable, especially in the times when the spectacular failure of the predictions of the Club of Rome, expressed in their 1972 book “Limits to Growth", has become evident, it is recognised that the photovoltaic energy harvesting seems to be the only branch able to provide cheap and clean energy in the future [1]. This is because the other above-mentioned “green" technologies have not enough growth potential and area of availability to be regarded major sources of cheap energy for the future. Energy production from renewable sources encompass still emerging technologies. They constitute only 6% of the global final energy consumption (2009), excluding traditional biomass [2]. Their share of the global electricity consumption (2010) is higher but it is still smaller than 20%, whereas about 16% is attributed to hydroelectricity [2], the most established renewable energy source. All the other sources contribute around 3.3% of the global share. Obviously, fossil fuels dominate both rankings. The main parameter to characterise energy sources is the average cost of production per kilowatt‑hour or megawatt-hour. Looking at the comparison of the cost [2] it is no wonder that photovoltaics are not in widespread use. The cost of electric energy from this source is 5-10 times higher than from the cheapest renewable one, i.e. hydroelectricity. It is also estimated to be around 3 times more expensive than electric energy from coal [3]. Various reports give different figures on the average costs of energy, but in each of them the tendency for photovoltaic energy to be much more expensive is clear. Solar cells will not be competitive with other energy sources as long as[...]

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