Wyniki 1-10 spośród 10 dla zapytania: authorDesc:"Zbigniew ŁUKASIK"

Europe's energy efficiency requirements for household appliances DOI:10.15199/48.2015.03.45

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W związku z opublikowaniem w Dzienniku Urzędowym Unii Europejskiej Rozporządzeń Komisji nr 66/2014 oraz 65/2014 dotyczących klas energetycznych piekarników, płyt grzewczych, okapów nadkuchennych w Polsce firmy produkujące ten rodzaj sprzętu AGD zobowiązane są do załączania informacji o produkcje zgodnie Rozporządzeniem od 1 stycznia 2015 Wymagania w zakresie efektywności energetycznej w Europie dla sprzętu gospodarstwa domowego Abstract. Following the publication in the Official Journal of the European Union Commission Regulations No. 66/2014 and 65/2014 on energy classes oven, hob, range hood in Poland, the company producing household appliances are required to attach information about the product in accordance with Regulation from 1 January 2015. Słowa kluczowe: efektywność energetyczna, piekarnik, płyta grzewcza, okap nadkuchenny. Keywords: Energy effectiveness, oven, hob, range hood. Introduction Over the next 20 years, Poland has become a safe country energy.[5,6] In recent years there has been rapid technological progress in the field of used household cooking appliances.[11,1] In studies ecodesign indicated that household appliances have a significant potential for energy savings. [12,4]. It is expected that the combined effect of the provisions laid down in Commission Regulations (EU) No 66/2014, No. 65/2014 on energy labeling of household ovens and range hoods will lead to annual savings of primary energy at the level of 27 PJ / year in 2020 and that will increase to 60 PJ / year by 2030.The information provided on the respective labels should be obtained through reliable, accurate and reproducible calculation and measurement methods that take into account the recognised state-of-the-art calculation and measurement methods including, where available, harmonised standards adopted by the European standardisation organisations, as listed in Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 1025/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Coun[...]

Innovative reduction of CO2 emission through application of energy-saving electroluminescent external lightning of passenger vehicles DOI:10.15199/48.2015.12.66

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Przemysł motoryzacyjny konsekwentnie rozwija technologię LED stosowaną do oświetlenia zewnętrznego pojazdów osobowych. Nadając pojazdom nie tylko nowy ciekawy wygląd, ale również przyczynia się do spadku zużycia energii elektrycznej co przekłada się na zmniejszenie emisji CO2. Ograniczenie emisji dwutlenku węgla to jeden z podstawowych warunków jakie założyła sobie Unia Europejska w niedawno przyjętym pakiecie energetyczno - klimatycznym. Sektor transportu drogowego jest drugim co do wielkości źródłem emisji gazów cieplarnianych w UE odpowiedzialnym za 12% wszystkich emisji dwutlenku węgla. Obniżenie emisji do przeciętnego poziomu 130g CO2/km z nowych samochodów ma zostać osiągnięte poprzez postęp technologiczny w procesie produkcji pojazdów. Dodatkowe ograniczenie o 10g CO2/km można uzyskać poprzez inne usprawnienia techniczne, takie jak lepsze ogumienie, sprawniejsze systemy klimatyzacji, bardziej efektywne oświetlenie czy wykorzystanie biopaliw. W artykule autorzy zaprezentowali założenia i wytyczne techniczne oraz metodę badań innowacyjnego pakietu technologicznego w odniesieniu do stosowania energooszczędnego oświetlenia zewnętrznego pojazdów wykorzystujących diody elektroluminescencyjne. Energooszczędne oświetlenie zewnętrzne wykorzystujące diody elektroluminescencyjne w światłach mijania, światłach drogowych, przednich światłach pozycyjnych i światłach tablicy rejestracyjnej w samochodach typu M1 uznane zostało przez Komisję Europejską za innowacyjne rozwiązanie z kodem ekoinnowacji "10". Innowacyjne zmniejszenie emisji CO2 przez zastosowanie energooszczędnego elektroluminescencyjnego oświetlenia zewnętrznego samochodów osobowych Abstract. Automotive industry constantly develops LED technology applied to external lightning of passenger vehicles. It gives vehicle not only a new interesting look, but also contributes to reduction of electricity consumption and reduction of CO2 emission. Reduction of CO2 emission is one of the basic cond[...]

Eco-friendly technology to reduce CO2 emissions of passenger cars based on innovative solutions DOI:10.15199/48.2016.08.66

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W ostatnim czasie obserwujemy bardzo dynamiczny wzrost udziału w rynku urządzeń służących do konwersji energii słonecznej. Duże zainteresowanie odnawialnymi źródłami energii powoduje, że technologie stosowane do pozyskiwania energii z tych źródeł odnawialnych są coraz bardziej powszechne i ciągle udoskonalane. Zasadniczą zaletą ogniw fotowoltaicznych jest to, że przetwarzają energię elektryczną, bez ubocznej produkcji zanieczyszczeń, hałasu oraz innych czynników wywołujących niekorzystne zmiany w środowisku naturalnym. Panele fotowoltaiczne (panele PV) należą do najszybciej rozwijającej się technologii pozyskiwania energii odnawialnej na świecie. Dzięki rozwojowi fotowoltaiki i technologii magazynowania energii elektrycznej otwierają się nowe możliwości dla gospodarki niskoemisyjnej. Połączenie tych technologii pozwala nie tylko na magazynowanie niestabilnej "zielonej energii", ale również przyczynia się do rozwoju niskoemisyjnego transportu (samochody energetyczne). Sektor motoryzacji jest dużym konsumentem energii. W artykule autorzy zaprezentowali ekologiczna technologię zmniejszenia CO2 poprzez zastosowanie fotowoltaicznego szyberdachu wspomagającego ładowanie akumulatora w samochodach typu. M1 uznaną przez Komisję Europejską, jako innowacyjne rozwiązanie (kod ekoinnowacji 7). Ponadto przedstawiono metodę badań redukcji emisji CO2 fotowoltaicznych szyberdachów wspomagających ładowanie akumulatora. Ekologiczna technologia zmniejszenia CO2 poprzez zastosowanie fotowoltaicznego szyberdachu wspomagającego ładowanie akumulatora w samochodach typu. M1 Abstract. In recent times, we have observed a very dynamic market growth in the presence of devices for solar energy conversion. Strong interest in renewable energy sources makes the technologies used to generate energy from the renewable sources become more common and thus they continuously improve. The principal advantage of photovoltaic cells is that they process energy without producing second[...]

Monitoring of low voltage grids with the use of SAIDI indexes DOI:10.15199/48.2017.09.30

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European Union and Energy Regulatory Office sets the following goals for the companies from electrical power sector: continuity of electricity supply, an increase in reliability and the use of renewable sources of energy. These requirements are related to electrical power security of the states, in terms of operation and maintenance of power lines [1], [2]. Therefore, electrical power infrastructure requires larger number of inspections, repairs or complete modernization [18]. Therefore, the solutions supporting an analysis of failure frequency are required, as well as solutions that will improve switching of damaged fragments of the lines. Distribution network operators are more and more involved in accomplishment of above goals, which results in higher quality of supplied energy.[3], [4], [14]. The basic goal of the publication is to compare SAIDI indexes and to present a new method of established and justified level of operational costs for distribution network operators. The main causes of failures in medium-voltage lines Medium-voltage transmission lines in Poland consist in 80% of overhead lines and in 20% of cable lines. The number of cable lines is increasing every year due to modernization and changing overhead lines into cable lines. The majority of medium-voltage lines were built in the 1970s-1980s. AFL-6 cables from 25 mm2 in diameter on the branches of lines up to 70 mm2 at the stem of low voltage line were usually used for the construction of overhead lines. Due to increased power demand from the customers, diameters of the lines, particularly on the branches can be insufficient. These structures were supported by poles: ŻN (reinforced concrete), BSW (prestressed concrete), ŻW (reinforced concrete high). These rods were between 10 and 14 m high and between 1,1 and 4,4 kN of tension. The poles were equipped with supporting insulators (linear standing rod) and linear hanging rod insulators [5]. The disadvant[...]

Monitoring of low voltage grids with the use of SAIDI indexes DOI:10.15199/48.2017.10.33

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European Union and Energy Regulatory Office sets the following goals for the companies from electrical power sector: continuity of electricity supply, an increase in reliability and the use of renewable sources of energy. These requirements are related to electrical power security of the states, in terms of operation and maintenance of power lines [1], [2]. Therefore, electrical power infrastructure requires larger number of inspections, repairs or complete modernization [18]. Therefore, the solutions supporting an analysis of failure frequency are required, as well as solutions that will improve switching of damaged fragments of the lines. Distribution network operators are more and more involved in accomplishment of above goals, which results in higher quality of supplied energy.[3], [4], [14]. The basic goal of the publication is to compare SAIDI indexes and to present a new method of established and justified level of operational costs for distribution network operators. The main causes of failures in medium-voltage lines Medium-voltage transmission lines in Poland consist in 80% of overhead lines and in 20% of cable lines. The number of cable lines is increasing every year due to modernization and changing overhead lines into cable lines. The majority of medium-voltage lines were built in the 1970s-1980s. AFL-6 cables from 25 mm2 in diameter on the branches of lines up to 70 mm2 at the stem of low voltage line were usually used for the construction of overhead lines. Due to increased power demand from the customers, diameters of the lines, particularly on the branches can be insufficient. These structures were supported by poles: ŻN (reinforced concrete), BSW (prestressed concrete), ŻW (reinforced concrete high). These rods were between 10 and 14 m high and between 1,1 and 4,4 kN of tension. The poles were equipped with supporting insulators (linear standing rod) and linear hanging rod insulators [5]. The disadvant[...]

Mathematical model of asynchronous pump drive with distributed mechanical parameters DOI:10.15199/48.2018.06.32

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The use of electric drives as of today is practically unlimited. The electric drive analysis should include a description of the phenomena related to: drive motor, system movement transmission, drive mechanism and the electric drive control system. Each of the system components is very important in the context of the task set up for the drive system. The paper proposes mathematical modeling of transient dynamic processes in a drive system, consisting of a deepgroove asynchronous motor, a complex movement transmission with mechanical distributed parameters and a vertical pump. Such systems are widespread in many industrial applications, for example in the water pumping systems for cooling turbine sets in power plants. In case of these drives, it is important that the system movement transmission consists of very long shafts between the motor and the vertical pump. Multiple energy conversion process complicates the analysis electro-mechanic-hydraulic. The process is complicated itself, and there are no mathematical models of vertical pumps integrated in the electromechanical part of the drive system [4], [6], [8], [9], [10], [13], [15]. In order to solve a similar problem at a high theoretical level, it should be assumed that the movement transmission of the elastic-dissipative drive will be analyzed as a continuum with mechanical distributed parameters. Therefore, the main emphasis in the work is put on the analysis of transient processes in the pumping system including long elastic elements. To solve this problem, the interdisciplinary method of variation was used. The method is based on the modification of the Hamilton-Ostrogradski principle [1], [2], [3], [5], [10]. The aim of the work is mathematical modeling of transient processes in complex pumping systems with long elements of flexible movement transmission based on interdisciplinary approaches. Mathematical model of system When analyzing the structure of the syst[...]

Application of energy-efficient systems in a processing line DOI:10.15199/48.2018.12.21

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Dynamically developing automation of manufacturing processes is looking for new technological solutions enabling to raise energy-efficient, qualitative, efficiency and economic requirements [5, 6, 8, 9]. During co-extrusion, a few layers is extruded at once [7]. These layers may differ in, for example, structure (foamed and solid) and colour. Many extruders are applied for coextrusion of the plastics. 3 PE extruders extruding 3 layers separately (A/B/C) are currently available on the market. A and B extruders can be one machine, which extrudes these layers in a proposed concept. Whereas, PET extruder consists of two extruders extruding 3 A/B/A layers. For example, worse raw material from the recycling can be added to a central layer. During co-extrusion, two extruders provide specific plastic to a common extruding head. Layered foils may also be extruded to get better mechanical properties of finished foils thanks to higher number of the layers. The advantage of such layered foils is better mechanical properties of the foils, and the fact that they are less thicker. It results in large savings in materials for a company. During extrusion of stretch foils, we can apply, for example, regranulate to a central layer, and glue only to external layers and one of the layers does not have neither glue, nor recycled raw material. The extruders consist of three systems: - power transmission system, - control system, - plasticizing system. Technology of co-extrusion line of production of PET sheets and products from these sheets Extrusion is a continuous process. (Fig. 1) The plastics, usually granulates, are added to a heated cylinder, which is subjected to plasticization and homogenization, through extruding head, and then through the calibrators forming a finished product [4]. A pressing is cooled down and then cut into segments of desired size or rolled up on the drums (Fig. 2). PE extruder works with a PET extruder in product[...]

The mathematical model of the drive system with asynchronous motor and vertical pump DOI:10.15199/48.2018.01.34

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Mathematical modelling of transient electrodynamics processes occurring in complex drive systems is an assignment that has not been completed yet. It is well known that in the aforementioned systems, sophisticated physical processes occur in the course of which electromagnetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy, which is next turned into hydraulic energy. In complex electromechanical-hydraulic high power system, either incorrect or inaccurate description of means of energy transformation may result with drive system failure. This article describes mathematical modelling of transient dynamic processes of system comprising deep groove asynchronous motor which is coupled with vertical pump [10] by means of a fixed shaft. Such system is characterized by multiple transformation of energy, which makes analysis of electromechanical-hydraulic processes a complex issue. The very process itself is complicated by nature. Additionally, no one has yet designed mathematical model of vertical pumps integrated in electromechanical part of drive system [2], [3], [7], [9]. In consequence, in order to complete the above described assignment a comprehensive interdisciplinary knowledge in three scientific fields is required: electrical engineering, applied mechanics and hydrodynamics. For aforementioned complex systems it is recommended to apply interdisciplinary modelling methods, which significantly expands research capabilities [1], [5]. This method uses modified integral Hamilton-Ostrogradsky’s principle by expanding Lagrange function with two components: dispersion forces energy and non-potential energy of external forces. It should be noted that expanded Lagrange function is obtained by analytical method. This article aim is to design a mathematical model of complex drive system comprised of deep groove asynchronous motor coupled with vertical pump, and to analyse transient electromechanical-hydraulic processes. Mathema[...]

Reducing the dissymmetry of load currents in electrical networks 0,4/0,23 kV using artificial neural networks DOI:10.15199/48.2019.11.56

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The problem of the quality of electric energy plays a prominent role in development strategies of virtually every state. In European countries, it is believed that if the electricity losses exceed 7 - 9%, then such a transfer of electric energy is inefficient. Therefore, a need has emerged to develop new methods and measures of reducing the losses and improving the indicators of electric energy quality. Numerous studies on the analysis of voltage up to 0,4/0,23 kV in rural networks operating modes [1 - 3] showed that current dissymmetry is due to of municipal and household workload, most of which consists of casual switching, single-phase power-consuming equipment that is non-uniformly distributed over the phases. Knowledge of current values of asymmetry in a network allows specifying its additional power losses comparing to the symmetrical mode and the possibility of applying measures to reduce the losses [2]. The changing load of single-phase residential consumers of electricity is erratic and it is very difficult to predetermine its value at any given time. Boundaries of load change can only be established with a certain probability [4, 5, 6]. Technical and economic characteristics of the network performance deteriorate sharply in single-ended mode: energy losses increase and the voltage deviation from the nominal [7, 8]. Lifetime of asynchronous motors attached to a network also declines sharply. Furthermore, there are a number of adverse electromagnetic effects, both in the network and in the load. Therefore, losses of active energy, resulting in non-uniformity of phase load lines 0,4/0,23 kV and consumer transformers 6-10/0.4 kV, may increase by more than a third compared with the losses that would have occurred with a uniform load [3]. Analyzing two types of asymmetry, systematic, which is caused by a constant uneven phase load over time, and probable, which is determined by randomly varying loads in time, one fir[...]

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