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Low-ohmic contacts on the basis of silver nanopowder dedicated to photovoltaic cells

  Obtaining satisfactory parameters of solar cell is largely dependent on mastering the technique of producing contacts metal - semiconductor. The m-s contact can be strictly mechanical connection (e.g. trough contact electrode with semiconductor) as well as inseparable, integral connection. The m-s contacts may be regarded as ideal if they generate no additional resistance for the current, do not react chemically with semiconductor material, do not change characterictics while changing illumination, temperature or value of applied electric filed and do not exhibit rectifying effects. Such contact can be described with Ohm’s law - its current-voltage characteristic is linear. It is obvious that ideal contacts do not exist, but the aim of the technology is to approach as close as possible to the imaginary ideal contact. To eliminate serious mistakes while creating ohmic contacts it is necessary to know the type of conduction. The material chosen for contacts should create impurity centers that comply with semiconductor’s type of conduction - it should contain donor impurities in case of contact with n - type semiconductor and acceptor impurities in case of p-type semiconductor. Except specified electrical properties there are many other physicochemical properties (such as good thermal conductivity, compatibility of metal and semiconductor coefficient of heat expansion, proper mechanical strength in different temperatures) that should characterize a useful m-s contact [1]. In the following thesi[...]

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