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Degradacja gleb na terenach rolniczych

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Praca przedstawia definicje degradacji gleb, podawane przez różnych autorów. W pracy przeanalizowano przyczyny i formy degradacji gleb terenów rolniczych. Opracowanie wyjaśnia rolę czynników przyrodniczych i antropogenicznych, wpływających na procesy degradacji gleb. Podkreślono także rolę niewłaściwej praktyki rolniczej w procesie degradacji gleb.Definicje degradacji gleb różnią się w zapisie [...]

Mobile Safety System for the Blind


  There are many devices on the market that help the visual impaired people to walk in unknown urban environment [1- 4]. Numerous research and tests have been carried out in Special Educational Centre for Blind and Partially Sighted Children in Kraków. The results show there is still one major problem that needs to be solved. This problem concerns holes and road excavations in the ground and small yet very dangerous hanging obstacles which a blind person can encounter - Fig. 1. A device has to be designed to help the visual impaired people deal with the types of dangerous situations mentioned above There are devices designed especially for the visual impaired people that inform them about some obstacles and free space; for instance one device can inform if a seat in a train is occupied or not or if an elevator door is open or not. However, there is no such a device that could inform about holes and road excavations, especially the ones that have recently occurred on a daily road from a blind person’s home to their work place, damages in stairs or open space between an edge of a train platform and tracks [5]. Holes and road excavations are usually marked but it is very hard for blind people to spot and detect them. That is why any road hole is a serious danger for them. With some help of an electronic device for blind people or just a simple white stick, a blind person is able to determine if there is a hole ahead. But the problem is th[...]

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