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Hardware and software synthesis of exemplary crossroads in a modular programmable controller

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The aim of this article is to present the achievements in the field of the execution of a road junction model as well as the design of traffic managing algorithms and programs based on a modular programmable controller (S7 - 200 CPU 222), i.e. under conditions of restricted program and data memory along with limited syntax of the programming language. The authors have shown that it is possible to produce a simulation environment (of a structure similar to real conditions), which will allow for experiments with the algorithms controlling traffic lights and observation of vehicles behaviour in the newly adjusted environment. Streszczenie. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przedstawienie dokonań w zakresie wykonania makiety skrzyżowania dróg oraz opracowania algorytmów I programów dla potrzeb sterowania ruchem na bazie programowalnego sterownika modułowego (S7 - 200 CPU 222) tj. w warunkach ograniczonej pamięci programu i danych oraz ograniczonej syntaktyki języka programowania. Autorzy wykazali, że możliwe jest opracowanie środowiska symulacyjnego (o strukturze podobnej do rzeczywistych warunków), co pozwoli na prowadzenie badań eksperymentalnych dla algorytmów sterujących sygnalizacją świetlną i obserwacji zachowań pojazdów w nowo wysterowanej rzeczywistości. (Synteza sprzętowoprogramowa przykładowego węzła drogowego w programowalnym sterowniku modułowym). Keywords: hardware and software synthesis, PLC, traffic. Słowa kluczowe: synteza sprzętowo-programowa, PLC, ruch drogowy. Introduction Analysis and modelling of traffic is a difficult task, what with the complexity of the problem and its stochastic nature. Road administration and scientists, not wanting to expose drivers to inconveniences connected with attempts of controlling an area (e.g. a crossroads or a couple of intersections in close vicinity), make use of various simulators. Over the last few years, many publications have covered the attainments in this field. In general, they c[...]

A novel experimental setup for accelerated reliability assesment of solder and adhesive joints


  A continuously growing demands for customer electronics focus on miniaturisa-tion, higher reliability and faster product commercialisation. They are fulfilled primarily through an investigation and development of new methods for assembling, packaging, and dies integration. In reality, advanced technological apparatus and materials science play here predominant role. In parallel, the strong expansion on nanotechnology introduces new polymer materials and fillers, such as nanosilver (nanoAg) or carbon nanotubes (CNT), with combination of wide spectra front-end and back-end processing, opens completely new window for application performance and usability. However, these new opportunities force an extreme challenges on whole scientist and technology communities. Although, there are several advanced techniques for materials base parameters investigation, the final assessment of materials quality and ultimate product usability can be performed by means of reliability tests, which are the most accurate way to predict time to failure of any devices and electronic components. A spectra of tests potential of developed failure and reliability investigation system (FRIS) is reported in this paper. It base on a self-developed electronic control and data acquisition system, operated with innovative setup (allowing simultaneous load of different stresses and on-line monitoring the response of subjected sample). This approach allows in depth investigation of solder and adhesive joints reliability for electronic applications. Solder and adhesive joints -reliabilllity consideration Soldering is a well-established process that has been utilized and optimized for decades. In natural consequence, soldered joints are widely used in electronic packaging to form[...]

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