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Skutki gospodarcze niedostarczenia energii elektrycznej do odbiorców komunalno-bytowych DOI:10.15199/48.2018.03.36

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Produkt pracy ludzkiej przeznaczony na sprzedaż staje się towarem. Energia elektryczna jest zatem towarem, który został wytworzony (elektrownia), przetransportowany (sieci przesyłowe i dystrybucyjne), sprzedany (spółki obrotu) oraz kupiony (odbiorca) [7, 8]. Dobro może wystąpić jako towar tylko wtedy, gdy odpowiada zapotrzebowaniu społeczeństwa, czyli gdy jest w stanie zaspokoić określone jego potrzeby [7]. Aby odbiorcy mogli w pełni korzystać z energii elektrycznej, musi ona (jako towar) posiadać odpowiednie cechy jakościowe. Jakość zasilania odbiorców w energię elektryczną można podzielić na [13]:  jakość dostarczanej energii elektrycznej (jakość napięcia),  niezawodność dostawy energii elektrycznej (niezawodność zasilania),  jakość obsługi odbiorcy (klienta). Parametry jakościowe energii elektrycznej dostarczanej odbiorcom w poszczególnych grupach przyłączeniowych określone są w Rozporządzeniu Ministra Gospodarki i Pracy z dnia 20 grudnia 2004 r. w sprawie szczegółowych warunków przyłączenia podmiotów do sieci elektroenergetycznych, ruchu i eksploatacji tych sieci (Dz. U. 2005 Nr 2, poz. 6) [15]. Doprecyzowano je w Rozporządzeniu Ministra Gospodarki z dnia 4 maja 2007 r. w sprawie szczegółowych warunków funkcjonowania systemu elektroenergetycznego (Dz. U. Nr 93, poz. 623) [16]. Parametry określające jakość energii elektrycznej zawarto z kolei w Polskiej Normie PN-EN 50160:1998 Parametry napięcia zasilającego w publicznych sieciach rozdzielczych, stanowiącej implementację Normy Europejskiej EN 50160:1994 [14]. Niezawodność dostaw energii do odbiorców obejmuje zagadnienia przerw w zasilaniu oraz ich skutków. Wreszcie jakość obsługi odbiorców to wszelkie zależności handlowe, ale także interpersonalne między dostawcą energii, a jej odbiorcą, obejmujące uwarunkowania prawne, ekonomiczne, a także społeczne, decydujące o bieżących standardach obsługi odbiorców i praktykach załatwiania skarg i reklama[...]

Effects of unreliability of electricity distribution systems for municipal customers in urban and rural areas DOI:10.15199/48.2019.05.42

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Electric power engineering is an indispensable component of civilization and economic infrastructure. Currently, almost all households located in the country are electrified. The increase in demand for power and electricity is a sign of the country's economic development. The problem of the reliability of the power system is such an important issue because of the requirements of the modern economy. The individual electricity recipient also has very high requirements regarding the quality and continuity of electricity supply. Possible interruptions in the supply of energy disorganize his life, expose him to material losses, and may even lead to a threat to his health or life. Such a situation forces constant development and modernization of distribution power grids. The purpose of this paper is to present the issue of losses to municipal consumers, which are the result of interruptions in the supply of electricity. As shown in the article [1], the municipal recipient incurs significant costs of failures, which constitute the sum of the costs of forced inactivity losses and the costs of damage. This issue is so important and interesting that the Authors analyzed the costs of losses to energy consumers occurring as a result of the failure of electrical power systems, classifying recipients for their place of residence: city and village. The analysis carried out in the publication [1] showed that there are quite large discrepancies between urban and rural recipients and using the average economic coefficient of forced inactivity for all municipal consumers leads to significant errors in the estimation of failures. In the conducted research, households and small farms that do not conduct business activity are considered to be municipal (individual) consumers. Although in recent years there has been development of rural areas and currently living standards in cities and villages are comparable, there is still a significant diffe[...]

Statistical Analysis and Modeling of the Reliability of Overhead Low Voltage Lines DOI:10.15199/48.2019.12.59

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Modern electricity customers have very high demands regarding the quality and continuity of electricity supply. The total length of overhead LV lines and the number of customers connected to them is systematically increasing. Such a situation increases the risk of restrictions in the supply of electricity to customers in the event of a failure of the transmission system. This results in significant material damage and, in extreme cases, can lead to a risk to human health or life. Over the last few years, in connection with, among others, Poland's accession to the European Union, the interest in the problem of reliability of power systems has increased. The reason for this is the fact that even the shortest interruption results in dissatisfaction of electricity consumers and material losses. High reliability of operation of LV lines allows to reduce the time of interruptions in power supply to customers, and thus to minimize the costs of losses resulting from the lack of power supply to customers [5]. Low-voltage networks consist mainly of overhead lines, cable lines, cable and overhead connections, as well as all kinds of connectors. Overhead lines are used primarily in field networks, while cable lines are mostly used in urban networks. Overhead LV networks are usually built as radial systems, while cable networks are built as loop systems with partitions in the cable joint. Low-voltage overhead lines are built in many different variants. In domestic distribution companies, aluminium wires are commonly used for the construction of overhead LV lines; copper wires are very rarely used and steelaluminium wires are used in exceptional cases. Currently, mainly single-metal wires with cross-sections from 16 mm2 to even 120 mm2 are used. In low-voltage overhead lines, insulated wires in the form of twisted pair solid wires or multiconductor insulated wires are increasingly used. The disadvantage of insulated wires is their hig[...]

Application of the queuing theory to the description of the customer service process by the electricity distributor company DOI:10.15199/48.2020.01.09

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Electricity in the producer-consumer relationship is treated as a commodity, so its highest quality must be ensured. The quality of electricity supply to consumers can be divided into [8, 9]: - quality of electricity supplied (voltage quality), - reliability of electricity supply, - quality of customer (consumer) service. Distribution companies are bound by the high-quality standards of customer service specified in [11]. They set out the obligations of distributors, the procedures of conduct, information and request to customers [2]. The quality of customer service by distributors consists of the following factors: - handling reports, claims and complaints, - elimination of energy supply disruptions, - request of scheduled breaks, - discounts for failure to meet energy supply conditions, - providing information on energy supply, - determination of forms and mode of energy settlements, - determination of the conditions for connecting consumers to the power grid. From the point of view of consumers, the most important thing is to maintain the continuity of electricity supply, which is why each distribution company has several powerline technician teams that repair failures in the power grid. This raises the problem of proper handling of customer requests by teams of powerline technicians. This issue can be analyzed using the mass service theory, abbreviated to the queuing theory. The functioning of queues is visible in many areas of everyday life. However, there are cases in which this issue requires specific analysis and, as a result, determining the exact procedure to be followed. The problem of queues’ service is directly related to the issue of costs of implementing specific processes (tasks). Then we are dealing with a dilemma of cost - quality [10]. This problem is not unknown to power companies either. Queuing theory is one of the branches of operational research and is based on the theory of probability [...]

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